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By M. Karimi, Y. Labrador

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The field distribution g(r) is defined by a Gaussian distribution of attenuation across the aperture with an effective radius ae : g(r) = exp − r2 a2e . (32) Then the power received by the antenna in free space is given by Pin (z) = Se · = ∗ ( z )] Re[uin (z) · uin Z0 1 · Re Se Z0 ∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ in dr+ dr− M11 (r+ , r− , z) exp − 2 2 1 2 r+ − 2 r− 2 ae 2ae , (33) where Re[ x ] denotes the real part of x and Z0 is the characteristic impedance. The energy per bit Eb can be obtained by the product of the received power Pin (z) and the bit time Tb : Eb = Pin (z) · Tb Tb · Re Se Z0 = ∞ ∞ −∞ −∞ in dr+ dr− M11 (r+ , r− , z) exp − 2 2 1 2 r+ − 2 r− a2e 2ae .

37, No. 3, (March 1949), pp. 263-272, ISSN 0096-8390 Kraus, J. D. (1988). Antennas (2nd ed), McGraw-Hill Companies, ISBN 978-0070354227, New Delhi, India Lan, C. , Chang, T. H. & Kiang, J. F. (2004). Helical antenna for GPS applications, Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, ISBN 07803-8302-8, June 2004. Letestu, Y. & Sharaiha, A. (2006). Broadband folded printed quadrifilar helical antenna, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 5, (May 2006), pp.

I =0 1 F1 43 15 i κ 2 z2 2 5 −i − ; 1; − m 2L κ+ 6 4k 1 F1 1 2 2z − ; − ; − L κ+ 3 3 kL0 . (52) Fig. 5 m. As reference, we plot a dashed line as the BER in the absence of atmospheric turbulence given by (37). It is found that BER increases compared with one in the absence of atmospheric turbulence. Because we have already shown that the decrease in the spatial coherence of received waves is negligible, we predict that the increase in BER is caused by the decrease in the average received intensity due to spot dancing shown in Fig.

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