Internal Medicine

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By Lynnette Brent

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Additional info for Acids and Bases

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In a reaction in which an acid and a base are reactants, the products are a salt and water. The materials used to create the salt and the water come from the acid and the base. T he pH of water is right around seven, so water is neutral—it is neither an acid nor a base. Because water forms from the reaction between acids and bases, this reaction between an acid and a base is also called a neutralization reaction. Common table salt is created from a reaction between an acid and a base. When hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are combined, one of the products is water.

If you are mixing a strong acid with water, for example, start with the water and then add acid. Why? If you instead pour water into sulfuric acid, for example, the solution will boil and can “spit” sulfuric acid, which can burn your skin. If you add acid to the water, the acid is heavier and will sink. A titration is a special kind of experiment in which researchers can find the pH of an unknown liquid by comparing it to a known liquid. 28 Any reactions that could hurt you will happen inside the container rather than outside.

Mold the dough around a soda bottle. Fill 2/3 of the bottle with water, a few drops of food coloring, and 6 drops of detergent. Add 2 tablespoons of baking soda into the bottle. Both the detergent and baking soda are bases. Now slowly pour vinegar, an acid, into the bottle. What happens? 29 Glossary acid A compound usually having a corrode To wear away gradually, sour taste and capable of neutralizing especially by chemical action bases and turning blue litmus paper electron An elementary particle red, containing hydrogen ion that is part of matter, having a acid rain Precipitation that negative charge contains high concentrations of equilibrium The condition when acid-forming chemicals a chemical reaction and its reverse alkali Any of various bases, the reaction are at equal rates hydroxides of alkali metals and gas A substance that can expand ammonium ion An atom or group of atoms aqueous Of, like, or containing water with a positive or negative charge atom The smallest component of liquid A substance that expands an element having the chemical to take the shape of its container properties of the element matter The substance or substances base A compound that reacts of which any physical object consists with an acid to form a salt or is composed buffer A substance that, added to a neutral Having the properties of solution, is capable of neutralizing neither an acid or a base acids and bases without changing the acidity or alkalinity of the solution 30 neutralization A chemical reaction product A substance produced in which an acid and a base interact in a chemical reaction to form water and a salt proton An elementary product neutron An elementary particle with a positive charge having no charge reactant Any substance that organism A form of life, such as an undergoes a chemical change in animal, plant, or fungus a chemical reaction pH The measure of the amount of solid Matter that has three dimensions: hydrogen ions in a solution length, width, and thickness pH meter An electronic instrument soluble Capable of being dissolved used to measure the pH of a liquid solution The process in which a pH scale A scale used to measure gas, liquid, or solid is dispersed how acidic or basic a substance is, throughout a gas, liquid, or solid ranging from 0 to 14.

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