By Alluru S. Reddi
Written in a succinct query and solution structure, this finished source covers all parts of nephrology and customary scientific situations. approximately a thousand questions with specific solutions supply nephrology fellows, training nephrologists and clinicians a greater knowing of nephrology and relief arrangements for nephrology and inner drugs forums. Absolute Nephrology overview beneficial properties the newest proof and directions whereas gratifying a severe desire in the nephrology community.
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Extra resources for Absolute Nephrology Review: An Essential Q & A Study Guide
His chest X-ray and total protein concentration are normal. Further testing is necessary to completely rule out occult malignancy. Urine ClÀ<10 and urine Ca2+ 150 mg exclude the diagnosis of thiazide use. Based on the white powder that was covering the leg ulcer, the patient may be using a substance that contains Ca2+. Indeed, the patient admitted to using baking soda (CaHCO3) for the last 6 months as a remedy for leg ulcers. Thus, option B is correct. Baking soda has been used as a home remedy for a number of conditions, including peptic ulcer disease and wound healing.
36 pCO2 ¼ 34 mmHg pO2 ¼ 80 mmHg HCO3À ¼ 22 mEq/L Which one of the following BEST characterizes the acid–base disturbance? A. B. C. D. E. Metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis Metabolic alkalosis and metabolic acidosis Respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis None of the above The answer is E The acid–base disorder should be analyzed systematically. Once the laboratory values are available, the next step is to check whether the pH is correct or not.
As a consequence of the mutation, the 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity is decreased with resultant accumulation of cortisol. Cortisol acts like a mineralocorticoid by occupying its receptor, causing Na+ reabsorption, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and low-renin-aldosterone HTN. Suppression of renin and aldosterone is due to volume excess caused by Na+ and water retention. Children with AME demonstrate low birth weight and nephrocalcinosis, the latter is due to hypokalemic nephropathy. HTN responds to salt restriction, amiloride, or triamterene but not to regular doses of spironolactone.