By Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot
Автор - профессор истории Ближнего и Среднего Востока Калифорнийского Университета - в своей книге даёт краткий курс истории Египта - от завоевания государства арабами, через эпоху мамлюков, объединение Египта в Османской империи, либеральные эксперименты в конституционном правительстве в начале двадцатого столетия, продолжившиеся в годы Насера и Садата, до настоящего времени, характеризующегося появлением новых политических партий, укреплением исламского фундаментализма и постепенного изменения отношения к женщинам.Образцы сканов:
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There's a couple of background of the world.
sooner than technology outlined the trendy age, different powers, wondrous and magical, as soon as ruled the universe, their lore perfected inside a misplaced capital of hieroglyphs, wizard-kings, and extraordinary monuments, no longer Egypt -- yet Ægypt.
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within the Nineteen Seventies, a historian named Pierce Moffett strikes to the hot England geographical region to write down a e-book approximately Ægypt, pushed via an concept he dare now not think -- that the actual legislation of the universe as soon as replaced and should switch back. but the proposal isn't his by myself. whatever waits on the locked property of Fellowes Kraft, writer of romances approximately Will Shakespeare and Giordano Bruno and Dr. John Dee, anything for which Pierce and people close to him have lengthy sought with no understanding it, a key, maybe, to Ægypt.
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Muslim preaching has been crucial in forming public opinion, construction grassroots agencies, and constructing management cadres for the broader Islamist time table. in accordance with in-depth box examine in Egypt, Patrick Gaffney makes a speciality of the preacher and the sermon because the unmarried most crucial medium for propounding the message of Islam.
In the course of the heyday of camel caravan traffic--from the 8th century CE arrival of Islam in North Africa to the early twentieth-century construction of eu colonial railroads that associated the Sudan with the Atlantic--the Sahara used to be one of many world's nice advertisement highways, bringing gold, slaves, and different commodities northward and sending either synthetic items and Mediterranean tradition southward into the Sudan.
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Finally they decided to go ahead with 42 a history of egypt torturing each other without having to pay the sultan a fee for the privilege. Sultan Qaitbay enjoyed the longest reign of any mamluk sultan since al-Nasir, ruling for twenty-nine years from 1468 to 1496. He managed to subdue the other mamluk amirs, frequently flogging some of them with his own powerful hands. He embarked on a series of campaigns which necessitated extracting funds from the amirs as well as from the population at large, so land was taxed at the rate of three-tenths of its produce.
Most of Saladin’s time was spent campaigning, so that little time was spent in Egypt. Those who ruled over Egypt in his name were his brother, Safadin, known as al-Malik al-Adil, and his vizier, al-Fadil, as well as a eunuch, Qaraqush, who supervised much of the public works carried out in the country. Qaraqush was so strict a taskmaster that his name has come down in modern parlance as an adjective describing any form of rule that is rigid and strict. In one sense it was fortunate for Egypt that Saladin spent most of his time abroad, since he had no financial sense, while his brother and his vizier both did, and kept a watchful eye on expenses in Egypt.
Although historians describe discriminatory practices applied to Christians, such as the wearing of black or the riding of donkeys instead of horses, by and large this was a good period of government. But that was soon to change with the advent of the Crusades. The first Crusade had begun its march into Muslim territory and captured Jerusalem by 1099. Had that march happened a few decades earlier it would have been stopped by the military power of the Seljuks; had it happened a few decades later the might of the mamluks would have stopped it.