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By Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot

Автор - профессор истории Ближнего и Среднего Востока Калифорнийского Университета - в своей книге даёт краткий курс истории Египта - от завоевания государства арабами, через эпоху мамлюков, объединение Египта в Османской империи, либеральные эксперименты в конституционном правительстве в начале двадцатого столетия, продолжившиеся в годы Насера и Садата, до настоящего времени, характеризующегося появлением новых политических партий, укреплением исламского фундаментализма и постепенного изменения отношения к женщинам.Образцы сканов:

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Finally they decided to go ahead with 42 a history of egypt torturing each other without having to pay the sultan a fee for the privilege. Sultan Qaitbay enjoyed the longest reign of any mamluk sultan since al-Nasir, ruling for twenty-nine years from 1468 to 1496. He managed to subdue the other mamluk amirs, frequently flogging some of them with his own powerful hands. He embarked on a series of campaigns which necessitated extracting funds from the amirs as well as from the population at large, so land was taxed at the rate of three-tenths of its produce.

Most of Saladin’s time was spent campaigning, so that little time was spent in Egypt. Those who ruled over Egypt in his name were his brother, Safadin, known as al-Malik al-Adil, and his vizier, al-Fadil, as well as a eunuch, Qaraqush, who supervised much of the public works carried out in the country. Qaraqush was so strict a taskmaster that his name has come down in modern parlance as an adjective describing any form of rule that is rigid and strict. In one sense it was fortunate for Egypt that Saladin spent most of his time abroad, since he had no financial sense, while his brother and his vizier both did, and kept a watchful eye on expenses in Egypt.

Although historians describe discriminatory practices applied to Christians, such as the wearing of black or the riding of donkeys instead of horses, by and large this was a good period of government. But that was soon to change with the advent of the Crusades. The first Crusade had begun its march into Muslim territory and captured Jerusalem by 1099. Had that march happened a few decades earlier it would have been stopped by the military power of the Seljuks; had it happened a few decades later the might of the mamluks would have stopped it.

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