By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE guide - basics covers easy rules and information utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up-to-date with examine subsidized via ASHRAE and others, this quantity contains 39 chapters overlaying normal engineering info, simple fabrics, weather information, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and emblems, in addition to actual homes of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were extra to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on the earth.
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Additional resources for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
With gas flows, the thermodynamic process involved must be considered. In general, this is assessed using Equation (9), written as dp V 2 ³ -----U- + -----2- + gz = B (21) Effects of viscosity variations also appear. In nonisothermal laminar flow, the parabolic velocity profile (see Figure 4) is no longer valid. In general, for gases, viscosity increases with the square root of absolute temperature; for liquids, viscosity decreases with increasing temperature. This results in opposite effects. For fully developed pipe flow, the linear variation in shear stress from the wall value Ww to zero at the centerline is independent of the temperature gradient.
Centrifugal fan sound power level prediction. 1. Heskested, G. 1970. Further experiments with suction at a sudden enlargement. Journal of Basic Engineering, ASME Transactions 92D:437. F. 1965. Fluid dynamic drag, 3rd ed. Hoerner Fluid Dynamics, Vancouver, WA. Hydraulic Institute. 1990. Engineering data book, 2nd ed. Parsippany, NJ. P. P. DeWitt. 2002. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 5th ed. Wiley, New York. Ito, H. 1962. Pressure losses in smooth pipe bends. Journal of Basic Engineering, ASME Transactions 4(7):43.
As flow proceeds, the wall layers grow (and centerline velocity increases) until they join, after an entrance length Le. Applying the Bernoulli relation of Equation (10) to core flow indicates a decrease in pressure along the layer. Ross (1956) shows that, although the entrance length Le is many diameters, the length in which pressure drop significantly exceeds that for fully developed flow is on the order of 10 hydraulic diameters for turbulent flow in smooth pipes. In more general boundary-layer flows, as with wall layer development in a diffuser or for the layer developing along the surface of a strut or turning vane, pressure gradient effects can be severe and may even lead to boundary layer separation.